Theory, Examples & Exercises
Niemelä et al. (1988), manually rewritten from Table 2.
Carabid beetles collected using pitfall traps in fragments of old coniferous taiga and managed forests in their immediate surroundings. Localities were classified into one of five habitat types, and samples from the same habitat types were pooled together.
The habitat types are:
The dataset contains number of individuals for all species recorded in each of five habitats. Data contain species in rows and habitats in columns.
Boreal zone in southern Finland (62°N, 24°E), in Seitseminen National Park (19 fragments of old forest), Hyytiälä region (14 fragments) and Helvetinjärvi National Park (2 fragments). Distances between sampling areas are between 25 to 80 km. Vegetation of middle and northern taiga.
carabids <- read.delim ('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/zdealveindy/anadat-r/master/data/carabid-beetles-boreal-forest.txt', row.names = 1)