Theory, Examples & Exercises
read.table- reads table in a plain text with cells delimited by some symbol (default setting for delimiter is
sep = “”, i.e. one or more white spaces, tabs, newlines or returns).
read.delim- reads table delimited by tabulators.
read.csv- reads table delimited by commas (,), with decimals being dots (.).
read.csv2- reads table delimited by semicolons (;) and decimals being commas (,).
readxl) - reads data frames directly from Excel file (both *.xls and *.xlsx) without need to install any third party software; it stores data in
tibbleformat, with rownames (if any) as the first column of the data - this needs to be treated before further analysis (see Example section to see how).
vegan) - reads legacy canoco condensed files (usually with extension
*.cc!); the function can get quite slow for large datasets - if the speed is an issue, consider using
cepreaderpackage (also maintained by Jari Oksanen)
rioja) the same as
cepreader; the package
riojahas also function
write.CEPproducing cep files.
Note that by default, functions like
read.csv2 import the columns containing characters strings into R as factors. If you don't like this behaviour, change the setting of
stringsAsFactors argument into
FALSE. If you want to know why this behaviour is set to default, read this blog post.